The process takes place in blast furnaces at a temperature of 2000 °C. The method of reducing iron by hydrogen is also used – special clay is required which is mixed with crushed ore and processed with hydrogen from a shaft furnace.
Basic oxygen steelmaking is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is converted into steel. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into steel.
The industrial production of iron involves reducing iron (III) oxide in a Blast Furnace. Most of the iron (III) oxide is reduced using carbon monoxide gas. This gas is a reducing agent which takes the oxygen away from iron (III) oxide. Notice that carbon monoxide gas in this reaction is changing into carbon dioxide.
Iron is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. Iron is a group 6 and period 4 metal. Iron is notable for being the final element produced by stellar nucleosynthesis and thus the heaviest element which does not require a supernova or similarly cataclysmic event for its formation.
A by-product of the iron-making process blastfurnace slags result from the fusion of fluxing stone (limestone or dolomite) with gangue (siliceous and aluminous) residues from the iron ore and coke ash. 302303 The chemical composition is dominated by lime silica and alumina (Table 15.16) with smaller amounts of magnesia sulfur and iron.
Iron making The primary objective of iron making is to release iron from chemical combination with oxygen and since the blast furnace is much the most efficient process it receives the most attention here. Alternative methods known as direct reduction are used in over a score of countries but less than 5 percent of iron is made this way.
The most common process is the use of a blast furnace to produce pig iron which is about 92-94% iron and 3-5% carbon with smaller amounts of other elements.